The following definitions are extracted
I.S.1A-11, Industry Standard for Architectural Wood Flush Doors and
WDMA I.S.6A-11, Industry Standard for Architectural Stile and Rail
A moulding or trim attached to the meeting edges of adjacent door
leaves in order to prevent swing through and to conceal the gap.
Also may be used for sound control, bullet resistance and x-ray
Balanced Match Two or more veneer components or leaves of
equal size (prior to edge trimming) to make up a single face.
A narrow, horizontal, vertical, or diagonal wood member
extending the total length or width of a glazed opening, used to
separate individual pieces of glazing.
Barber Pole An effect in book matching of veneers. Because
the "tight and "loose sides alternate in adjacent veneer leaves,
they may accept stain or reflect light differently, resulting in a
noticeable but acceptable color variation. Barber Pole is not
considered a manufacturing defect.
Pocket Comparatively small area of bark around which normal
wood has grown.
Bevel A machine angle other than a right angle, i.e., a 3
degree bevel that is equivalent to a 1/8 inch drop in a 2 inch span
(1 mm in 16 mm).
Beveled Edge An edge of the door which forms an angle of
less than 90 degrees with the face of the door, such as a 3 degree
Peck A mark or wound in a tree or piece of wood caused by
birds pecking on the growing tree in search of insects.
Bladder Pressed Panel See "Membrane Pressed Panel.
Blended Repair Tapering A repair referring to end splits,
repaired with wood or filler similar in color to blend well with
Blending Color change that is detectable at a distance of 6
ft. to 8 ft. (1.8 m to 2.4 m) but which does not detract from the
overall appearance of the door.
Blind Mortise and Tenon A method of construction of stile
and rail wood doors where openings are machined into, but not
through the stiles and where the ends of the rails are so machined
as to fit these openings.
Blister Spot or area where veneer does not adhere.
Blocking A material used to replace core material in
specific locations to provide improved screw holding for the
attachment of hardware. Blocking is only required where the screw
holding power of the core is less than required by the applicable
performance duty level.
Bonded Core Stiles and rails (edge bands) are securely
glued to the core prior to application of crossbanding, three ply
skins, veneers or laminate.
Match Adjacent leaves of veneer from a flitch or log are
opened like a book and spliced to make up the face with matching
occurring at the spliced joints. The fibers of the wood, slanting in
opposite directions in the adjacent leaves, create a characteristic
light and dark effect when the surface is seen from an angle.
Size The height and width of a door prior to prefitting.
A flat wise deviation from a straight line drawn from top to
bottom; a curvature along the length of the door.
Brashness A condition of wood characterized by a low
resistance to shock and by abrupt failure across the grain without
Bullet Resistant Doors Doors that resist penetration by
shots of varying caliber. Resistance may be rated as resistant to
medium power, high power, or high power small arms and high power
A swirl, twist or distortion in the grain of the wood, which
usually occurs near a knot or crotch. A burl can often be associated
with abrupt color variation and/or a cluster of adventitious buds.
Burl, Blending A swirl, twist or distortion in the grain of
the wood which usually occurs near a knot or crotch but does not
contain a knot and does not contain abrupt color variation.
Joint A joint formed by square edge surfaces (ends, edges,
and faces) coming together; end butt joint, edge butt joint.
Cathedral Grain A grain appearance characterized by a
series of stacked and inverted "V"s, or cathedral type of springwood
(earlywood) summerwood (latewood) patterns common in plain sliced
(flat cut) veneer (see split heart).
Center Match An even number of veneer components or leaves
of equal size (prior to edge trimming) matched with a joint in the
center of the panel to achieve horizontal symmetry.
Certified Wood Wood products that have been qualified by an
independent third party agency as satisfying their proprietary
requirements for responsible environmental practices.
Chatter Line appearing across the face at right angles to
the grain giving the appearance of one or more corrugations
resulting from bad setting of sanding equipment.
Checks Small slits running parallel to grain wood, caused
chiefly by strains produced in seasoning and drying.
Clustered When a defect described in the grading rule is
sufficient in number and sufficiently close together to appear to be
concentrated in one area.
Grain A quality of rift cut veneer with exceptionally
straight grain and closely spaced growth increments resembling the
appearance of long stands of combed hair.
Compatible When relating door edge to face appearance, the
edge may not be the same species as the face; however, it may be
similar in overall color, grain, character and contrast as the face
(See Matching Edge Band).
Component (Of Face Veneer) An individual piece of veneer or
leaf that is joined to other pieces to achieve a full length and
Composite A composite whose ingredients include cellulosic
elements. These cellulosic elements can appear in the form of, but
are not limited to: distinct fibers, fiber bundles, particles,
wafers, flakes, strands and veneers. These elements may be bonded
together with naturally occurring or synthetic polymers. Also,
additives such as wax or preservatives may be added to enhance
Composite Panel A door panel composed of a wood derivative
such as MDF. Used for opaque finishes.
Conspicuous See burl, conspicuous and knots, conspicuous
Coped Construction The end of rails, mullions, muntins or
bars so machined that they will fit and cover the contour of the
The innermost layer or section in component construction. For
typical constructions see: Particleboard Core, Medium Density
Fiberboard Core, Structural Composite Lumber Core, Staved Lumber
Core, Laminated Veneer Lumber Core, Fire Resistant Composite Core
and other special core types.
Core, Fire Resistant A fire resistant core material
generally used in wood doors requiring fire ratings of 3/4 hour or
more. Engineered composite products meeting the minimum requirements
Cross Bar (Veneer) Irregularity of grain resembling a dip
in the grain running at right angles, or nearly so, to the length of
Cross Break Separation (break) of the wood cells across the
grain. Such breaks may be due to internal strains resulting from
unequal longitudinal shrinkage, or to external forces.
Cross Break Separation (break) of the wood cells across the
grain. Such breaks may be due to internal strains resulting from
unequal longitudinal shrinkage, or to external forces.
Cross Figures A series of naturally occurring figure
effects characterized by mild or dominant patterns across the grain
in some faces. For example, a washboard effect occurs in fiddle-back
cross figure; and cross wrinkles occur in the mottle figure.
Crossbanding A ply placed between the core and face veneer
in 5-ply construction or a ply placed between the back and face of a
3-ply skin in 7-ply construction, typically of hardwood veneer or
engineered wood product.
A deviation from a straight line drawn from side to side; a
curvature along the width of the door.
Knots (Open Knots) Openings where a portion of the wood
knot has dropped out or where cross checks have occurred to present
Decay The decomposition of wood substance by fungi.
Defect, Open Checks, splits, open joints, knotholes,
cracks, loose knots, wormholes, gaps, voids, or other opening
interrupting the smooth continuity of the wood surface.
Delamination Separation of plies or layers of wood or other
material through failure of the adhesive bond.
Discolorations Stains in wood substances. Some common
veneer stains are sap stains, blue stains, stain produced by
chemical action caused by the iron in the cutting knife coming into
contact with the tannic acid in the wood, and those resulting from
the chemical action of the glue.
Frame A group of components (wood, aluminum or steel) that
are assembled to form an enclosure and support for a door. Also
known as door jambs.
Door, Bifold Doors so hinged as to fold against the door
jamb. Bifold doors are normally classified as either two- or
Door, Combination A door assembly of stiles and rails that
will include multiple door types within a single door. These door
types would typically include combinations of flat or raised panels,
lites and/or louvers.
Door, French A door assembly of stiles and rails (and
possibly muntins and bars) surrounding a single or multiple glazed
Door, Louver A door assembly of stiles and rails where the
interior is filled with slat or chevron louvers.
Door, Panel A door assembly of stiles, rails and one or
more panels. Intermediate rails or mullions are used to separate
panels. Panels can be raised or flat.
Doweled Construction A method of construction of stile and
rail wood doors where holes are machined into, but not through, the
stiles and where matching holes are machined into the ends of the
rails. Glue and dowels are inserted into these holes to attach the
rail to the stile.
A form of incipient decay characterized by dull and
lifeless appearance of the wood, accompanied by a lack of strength
and softening of the wood.
Band A strip along the outside edges of the two sides
and/or top and bottom of the door (See stiles/vertical edges,
Match A door/transom combination where single piece of
veneer extends from the bottom to the top of the door with a mirror
image at the transom.
Engineered Construction A method of constructing a wood
stile and rail door that minimizes the use of solid lumber
components. Stiles, rails and mullions have solid lumber edges only
(where visible), and have face veneers over a composite core. Panels
are also produced using face veneers and/or composite cores.
Engineered Materials A general term used to describe any
wood or plant fiber composite panel. Such products as Particleboard,
MDF, SCL and LVL are described as Engineered Fiber. Typically they
are made from wood or plant fiber or wood pieces and have specific
Engineered Veneer Veneers that are first peeled, normally
from Obeche or Poplar logs. The peeled veneer leaves are dyed to a
specified color, and then glued together in a mold to produce a
large laminated block. The shape of the mold determines the final
grain configuration. The block is then sliced into leaves of veneer
with a designed appearance that is highly repeatable.
Veneer The outermost exposed wood veneer surface of a
veneered wood door.
Width The total width of the stile, rail or panel minus the
width of the moulding patterns. The most common way of showing
dimensions on a stile and rail door elevation.
A small number of characteristics without regard to their
arrangement in the panel
(Putty Repairs) A repair to an open defect usually made
with fast drying plastic putty. The repairs should be well made with
non-shrinking putty of a color matching the surrounding area of the
wood, to be flat and level with the face and panel, and to be sanded
after application and drying.
Finger Joint A series of interlocking fingers precision cut
on the ends of two pieces of wood which mesh together and are held
rigidly in place with adhesive.
Rated Doors A door which has been constructed in such a
manner that when installed in an assembly will pass a fire test
under neutral (UL 10B) or positive (UL 10C) pressure criteria and
can be rated as resisting fire for 20 minutes (1/3 hour), 45 minutes
(3/4 hour), 1 hour, or 1-1/2 hours. The door must be tested and
carry an identifying label from a qualified inspection agency.
Resistant Composite Core A core, typically incorporating
minerals rather than wood fiber as the primary component, designed
to improve fire resistance and thermal transmission,
Flake See Fleck, Ray.
Flat-Cut See Plain-Sliced.
Fleck, Ray (Flake) Portion of a ray as it appears on the
quartered or rift cut surface. Fleck can be dominant appearance in
oak and is sometimes referred to as flake.
Flitch A complete bundle of veneer sheets laid together in
sequence as they are cut from a given log or section of log.
Open slits in the inner ply or plies or improperly joined
veneer when joined veneers are used for inner plies.
Glass Stop A small wood moulding (bead) applied to the
perimeter of glazed openings to secure the glazing materials within
Grain The direction, size, arrangement and appearance of
the fibers in wood or veneer.
Grain Slope Expression of the angle of the grain to the
long edges of the veneer component.
Grain Sweep Expression of the angle of the grain to the
long edges of the veneer component over a 12 inch (300 mm) length
from each end of the door.
Pockets Well-defined opening between rings of annual growth
containing gum or evidence of prior gum accumulations. Mainly
Spots & Streaks Gum or resinous material of color spots
caused by prior resin accumulations sometimes found on panel
Hairline A thin, perceptible line showing at the joint of
two pieces of wood.
Half-round A method of veneer cutting similar to rotary
cutting, except that the piece being cut is secured to a "stay log"
a device that permits the cutting of the log on a wider sweep than
when mounted with its center secured in the lathe to produce rotary
sliced veneer. A type of half-round cutting is used to achieve
plain-sliced or flat-cut veneer.
Hardboard Homogeneous panels manufactured primarily from
inter-felted lignocellulosic (wood) fibers consolidated under heat
and pressure with density of 31 lb/ft3 (497 kg/m3) or more.
Hardwood General term used to designate lumber or veneer
produced from temperate zone deciduous or tropical broad-leaved
trees in contrast to softwood, which is produced from trees which
are usually needle bearing or coniferous. The term does not infer
hardness in its physical sense.
Heartwood The non-active center of a tree generally
distinguishable from the outer portion (sapwood) by its darker
Density Fiberboard (HDF) No longer defined under ANSI
A208.2; HDF is a marketing term to define MDF grades above Grade 150
Pressure Decorative Laminate A high impact resistant
surface material consisting of decorative surface paper impregnated
with melamine resins pressed over multiple craft paper layers
saturated with phenolic resins, thermoset at high pressure and
Holes, Worm Holes resulting from infestation by worms
greater than 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) in diameter and not exceeding 5/8
inch (16 mm) in length.
Inconspicuous Barely detectable with the naked eye at a
distance of 6 ft. to 8 ft. (1.8 m to 2.4 m).
Indentations Areas in the face that have been compressed as
the result of residue on the platens of the hot press or handling
Intumescent A material that expands when exposed to extreme
heat or fire to fill any gap between the door and frame or between
Joint The line of juncture between the edges or ends of two
adjacent pieces of veneer.
Joint, Edge Joint running parallel to the grain of the
Joint, Open Joint in which two adjacent pieces of veneer do
not fit tightly together.
Kiln-Dried Lumber dried in a closed chamber in which the
removal of moisture is controlled by artificial heat and usually by
controlled relative humidity.
Knife Cuts per inch (KCPI) A measure of the smoothness of
machined lumber. Can be determined by holding the surfaced board at
an angle to a strong light source and counting the visible ridges
per inch, usually perpendicular to the profile. The surface is
smoother with more knife marks per inch.
Knife Marks Very fine lines that appear across the panel
veneer or wood solids that can look as though they are raised
resulting from some defect in the lathe knife that cannot be removed
Cross section of tree branch or limb with grain usually running at
right angles to that of the piece of wood in which it occurs.
Holes Voids produced when knots drop from the wood in which
they were originally embedded.
Knots, Blending Pin Sound knots 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) or less
that generally do not contain dark centers. Blending pin knots are
barely detectable at a distance of 6 ft. to 8 ft. (1.8 m to 2.4 m),
do not detract from the overall appearance of the panel, and are not
prohibited from appearing in all grades.
Knots, Conspicuous Pin Sound knots 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) or
less in diameter containing dark centers.
Knots, Open (Knot Holes) Openings where a portion of the
wood substance of the knot was dropped out, or where cross checks
have occurred to produce an opening.
Knots, Sound Tight Knots that are solid across their face
and fixed by growth to retain their place.
Laminated Veneer Lumber Core (LVLC) Manufactured by
laminating veneer with all grain laid-up parallel. It can be
manufactured by using various species of wood fiber in various
(Veneer) A condition where the pieces of veneer are so
misplaced that one piece overlaps the other and does not make a
Block A concealed block the same thickness as the door
stile or core which is adjacent to the stile at a location
corresponding to the lock location and into which a lock is fitted.
Loose Side In knife-cut veneer, that side of the sheet that
was in contact with the knife as the veneer was being cut, and
containing cutting checks (lathe checks) because of the bending of
the wood at the knife edge.
Louver A panel constructed of wood or metal slats installed
in an opening to allow light, air and noise. Common types are slat
and Chevron an inverted "V wood louver (vented or non-vented).
Pressure Decorative Laminate A decorative surface paper
that is saturated with reactive resins. During hot press lamination,
the resin flows into the surface of the substrate, creating a hard
crosslinked thermosetting permanent bond and permanently changing
the characteristics of both the paper and the board.
Matching Edge Band (ME) An edge band that is the same
species or laminate pattern as the face veneer.
Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) The generic name for a
panel or core manufactured from lignocellulosic fibers combined with
a synthetic resin or other suitable binder and bonded together under
heat and pressure in a hot press by a process in which the added
binder creates the entire bond.
Medium Density Fiberboard Core (MDFC) Wood fiber and/or
agri-fiber based materials that comply with ANSI A208.2.
Medium Density Overlay (MDO) Typically MDO is kraft paper
saturated with resin and cured under high heat and pressure to make
a hard, smooth, paintable surface.
Meeting Edges Two adjacent door edges not separated by a
mullion or transom bar. These are found in pair, Dutch door and door
& transom applications.
Membrane (Bladder) Pressed Pane Insert panel produced by
moulding to profile a wood or composite core (usually MDF or
particleboard) then pressing veneer to the core using a flexible
Mineral See Streaks, Mineral.
Mineral Core See Core, Fire Resistant.
Mineral Stain Olive and greenish-black streaks believed to
designate areas of abnormal concentration of mineral matter; common
in hard maple, hickory, and basswood. Also called Mineral Streak.
Mineral Streaks Sharply contrasting elongated discoloration
of the wood substance.
Mortise and Tenon See "Blind Mortise and Tenon
Moulding (Inlay) Profiled wood trim pieces that surround the
perimeter of panels or glazing, but does not protrude above the
surface of the surrounding stiles and rails.
Moulding (Overlay) Profiled wood trim pieces that surround
the perimeter of panels or glazing, and protrudes above the surface
of the surrounding stiles and rails.
Mullion A vertical member used to separate panels. Also
known as a "mull.
Muntin A short bar, either horizontal or vertical, used to
separate individual pieces of glazing material, but which does not
extend the full width or length of the glazed opening. Also known as
Natural When referring to color and matching, veneers
containing any amount of sapwood and/or heartwood, i.e., natural
birch, maple, ash.
Neutral Pressure A fire door test procedure where the
neutral pressure plane is near the top of the door.
Nominal A term that designates a stated dimension as being
approximate and subject to allowances for variation.
Non-Bonded Core Stiles and rails (edge bands) are not glued
to the core prior to face materials.
Restricted Allowed, unlimited.
Occasional A small number of characteristics that are
arranged somewhat diversely within the face.
Panel, Flat A door panel in which the perimeter does not
contain a machined profile (panel raise). Constructed with veneer on
the face and a composite core for a stained finish, or MDF for a
Panel, Raised A door panel whose faces are raised above the
perimeter and whose edges are shaped to fit into grooves in the
stiles, rails and mullions. These panels are typically bladder
pressed or rim banded for a stained finish or MDF for a painted
finish. (See diagram on the right.)
Particleboard A panel or core product composed of small
particles of wood and wood fiber that are bonded together with
synthetic resin adhesives in the presence of heat and pressure.
Particleboard Core Wood fiber and/or agri-fiber based
materials that comply with ANSI A208.1, minimum grade LD-1.
Patches Matching wood pieces carefully inserted and glued
into the door face after defective portions have been removed.
Plain Sliced Veneer sliced parallel to the pith of the log
and approximately tangent to the growth rings to achieve flat cut
veneer. Plain sliced veneer can be cut using either a horizontal or
vertical slicing machine or by the half-round method using a rotary
lathe. Also known as flat cut
Plank Matched A face containing specially selected and
assembled dissimilar (in color, grain and width) veneer strips of
the same species, and sometimes grooved at the joints between
strips, to simulate lumber planking. Plank matched faces are not
available pair matched or set matched.
Pleasing Match A face containing components, which provide
a pleasing overall appearance. The grain of the various components
need not be matched at the joints. Sharp color contrasts at the
joints of the components are not permitted.
A single sheet of veneer or several strips laid with adjoining
edges that may or may not be glued, which forms one veneer
lamination in a glued panel. In some constructions, a ply is used to
refer to other wood components such as particleboard or MDF.
Positive Pressure A fire door test procedure where the
neutral pressure plane is located at 40 inches (1 m) above the sill.
Prefitting Trimming of the door for width and/or height.
Puttied See Fill.
Quartered (Quarter-sliced, Quarter Cut) Veneer produced by
cutting in a radial direction to the pith to achieve a straight
(vertical) grain pattern. In some species, principally red oak and
white oak, ray fleck is produced, the amount of which may be
A horizontal structural member of a stile and rail door.
Fits between the stiles.
Rail, Bottom The bottom rail of a stile and rail door
Rail, Intermediate A rail, other than the top and bottom
rail, used to separate panels, or to separate panels from glazing
materials in a combination door. Also referred to as "cross rail.
Rail, Lock An intermediate rail located at approximately
adjacent to the lock.
Rail, Top The uppermost rail of a stile and rail door.
Rails/Horizontal Edges Top and bottom edge bands of door.
Random Matched (Mismatched) A face containing veneer strips
of the same species which are selected and assembled without regard
to color or grain, resulting in variations, contrasts and patterns
of color and grain. Pleasing appearance is not required. Random
matched faces are not available pair matched or set matched.
Ribbon-shaped strand of tissue extending in a radial direction
across the grain, so oriented that the face of the ribbon is exposed
as a fleck on the quarter surface. Also known as Wood Ray
Fleck See Fleck, Ray.
Red/Brown When referring to color and matching, veneers
containing all heartwood, ranging in color from light to dark.
Repairs A patch, shim, or filler material inserted and/or
glued into veneer or a panel to achieve a sound surface.
Repairs, Blending Wood or filler insertions similar in
color to adjacent wood so as to blend well.
Cut Veneer produced by cutting at a slight right angle to
the radial to produce a parallel grain pattern and quartered
appearance without excessive ray fleck. Oak veneer only.
Rim Banded (Mitered) Panel Insert
panel with a solid lumber edge banded around the core then veneered
Rotary Cut Veneer produced by centering the entire log in a
lathe and turning it against a broad cutting knife.
Rough Cut Irregular shaped areas of generally uneven
corrugation on the surface of veneer.
Running Match The veneer face is made from components
running through the flitch consecutively. Any portion of the
component left over from a face is used as the beginning component
or leaf in starting the next veneer face.
Ruptured Grain A break or breaks in the grain or between
springwood and summerwood caused or aggravated by excessive pressure
on the wood by seasoning, manufacturing, or natural processes.
Ruptured grain appears as a single or series of distinct separations
in the wood such as when springwood is crushed leaving the
summerwood to separate in one or more growth increments.
Rustic Lacking excessive refinement, having a rough surface
Safety Glazing Materials Glazing materials so constructed,
treated or combined with other material as to minimize the
likelihood of cutting or piercing injuries resulting from human
contact with the material. The most common types used in doors are
tempered or laminated. Safety glazing materials are required to meet
codes and federal regulations.
Sanding (Chatter, Dust, Burns) The degree of defects
allowed in sanding of the face.
Sapwood The living wood of lighter color occurring in the
outer portion of a tree.
Shake A separation along the grain of wood in which the
greater part occurs between the rings of annual growth.
Sharp Contrast For the purpose of this standard, this term
means the veneer of lighter than average color should not be joined
at the edges with veneer of darker than average color, and that two
adjacent pieces of veneer should not be widely dissimilar in grain,
figure and natural character markings.
Shims A split repaired in a piece of wood veneer,
preferably from the same piece of veneer from which the face is made
to ensure good color and grain match. The grain running in the same
direction as the split to be inconspicuous to the naked eye, and
free of any gaps where the shim joins the veneer. To be glued into
the split and sanded after being made. Color matched.
Through (Telegraphing) A defect caused by the outline
and/or surface irregularities, such as frame parts, core laps,
voids, etc., that is visible through the face veneers.
The face layer of a flush or stile and rail door, whether flat or
configured, which is used for facings for flush wood doors.
Sliced Veneer produced by thrusting a log or sawed flitch
into a slicing machine, which shears off veneer in sheets.
Slight Visible on observation, but does not interfere with
the overall aesthetic appearance.
Matched A sheet from a flitch is slid across the sheet
beneath and, without turning, spliced at the joint.
Slope See grain
Smooth, Tight Cut Veneer cut to minimize lathe checks.
Sound Transmission Class (STC) A single number rating
system derived from measured values of sound transmission loss or
the acoustical performance of a building element, such as a door,
window or wall. The higher the STC value, the better the rating and
the better the acoustical performance value. Tested in accordance
with ASTM E413 and E90.
Split Heart A method of achieving an inverted "V" or
cathedral type of springwood (earlywood)/summerwood (latewood),
plain-sliced (flat-cut) figure by joining two veneer components of
similar color and grain. A cathedral type figure must be achieved by
a single component in AA grade; the split heart method is allowed in
grades A and B. Each half of a split heart shall be subject to the
minimum component width requirements for grade A and B faces.
Splits Separations of wood fiber running parallel to the
Splits, Hairline A perceptible separation or absence of
wood fiber running parallel with the grain.
Standard Door By industry practice, a standard door is book
size in both width and height.
Staved Lumber Core (SLC) Made with any combination of
blocks or strips of wood, not more than 2-1/2 inches (64 mm) wide,
of one species of wood glued together (in butcher block fashion),
with joints staggered in adjacent rows.
Sticking A profile machined on to the edges of stiles,
rails, mullions, muntins or bars, adjacent to the panels, glazing
materials or louvers.
Stile The outermost vertical member of a stile and rail
Stiles/Vertical Edges The upright or vertical pieces of the
core assembly of a wood flush door. Measurement. The width of the
vertical edge/stile is measured at its widest side (the wide side of
a beveled door).
Streaks, Mineral Sharply contrasting elongated
discoloration of the wood substance.
Structural Composite Lumber Core (SCLC) An engineered wood
product that is made by fusing a network of wood strands together
with a water-resistant adhesive to produce a strong, solid and
stable product that has true structural properties with excellent
screw holding properties and very high split resistance.
Sugar See Worm Tracks.
Sweep See Grain
Strips of gummed paper used to hold the edges of the veneer
together at the joints prior to gluing.
Telegraphing See Show Through.
Tight Side In knife-cut veneer, that side of the sheet that
was farthest from the knife as the sheet was being cut and
containing no cutting checks (lathe checks).
Transom The panel above a door or set of doors.
Twist A deviation in which one or two corners of the door
are out of plane with the other corners of the door.
Veneer (wood) A thin sheet of wood, rotary cut, sliced, or
sawed from a log, bolt, or flitch.
Veneered Construction See Engineered Construction
Streaks (Mark.) Scars in the wood generally caused by the
stems of clinging vines or by their hair-like roots, which cling to
the tree trunk. Live vine streaks produce round scars. Dead vine
streaks contain either dead residue of the vine, or the remaining
pocket similar to bark pocket. Most vine streaks run across the
grain, and therefore, all vine streaks are considered defects in
accordance with restrictions described in veneer grading rules.
Voids See Gaps.
Any distortion in the plane of a door itself and not its
relationship to the frame or jamb in which it is to be hung. The
term warp includes bow, cup and twist, which are defined as follows:
Bow-A flat wise deviation from a straight line drawn from top to
bottom; a curvature along the length of the door. Cup-A deviation
from a straight line drawn from side to side; a curvature along the
width of the door. Twist-A deviation in which one or two corners of
the door are out of plane with the other corners of the door.
White When referring to color and matching, veneers
containing all sapwood, ranging in color from pink to yellow.
Filler An aggregate of resin and strands, shreds, or flour
of wood, which is used to fill openings in wood and provide a
smooth, durable surface.
Flush Door An assembly consisting of a core and one or more
edge bands, with 2 plies of wood veneer with laminate, wood, or wood
derivative on each side. All parts are composed of wood, wood
derivatives, fire resistant composites or decorative laminates.
Track (Scar) Marks caused by various types of wood
attacking larvae. Often appear as sound discolorations running with
or across the grain in straight to wavy streaks. Sometimes referred
to as pith flecks in certain species of maple, birch and other
hardwoods because of a resemblance to the color of pith.
The Language of Doors
Below are some additional terms which
have been used to describe windows or doors or their component
parts. These definitions are not included in current industry
Areas of fiber from outside a tree.
Chalk White or other color
chalk marks used by mills for some form of identification marking
defects for repair.
Chicken tracks Expression
for scars which give the particular effect of a chicken's footprint.
It is caused by air roots or vines.
Pitch Bleeding resin.